Why Oera Linda book can't be a forgery

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Re: Why Oera Linda book can't be a forgery

Post by Nordic »

Image here shows how one and same dynasty is seen both in OL and variety of sources, the primary other account being the Norse saga description of Finnish dynasty (one saga version, another saga version; others exist in more textually corrupted versions). Merely on basis of this comparison one could classify OL as part of Norse saga genre, though this is only one of the many OL-Norse parallels. This pertains mostly to sources #1-2 above.

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Re: Why Oera Linda book can't be a forgery

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Source 5 The Book of Adam and Eve

Source: German translation, English translation (bk. 1 clean text here).

Relevant portions: ch. 18 reference to God sending the devil-snake to India.

Corresponding OL MS portions: 165-166 on snakes in India and the theological connection made there.

Dating: known in Europe from 1853 onwards (8 years after OL MS).

Explanation: The Book of Adam and Eve is a AD 500s alternative account of early Biblical episodes with fully fleshed out sub-stories that get only cursory mention in standard Bible version (more here). Along with standard New Testament the text used a 6,000 year chronology with 1,000 year big years akin to similar 1,000 year spoke wheels of OL chronology system. Paradise garden of Eden is nowhere near Middle-East, but somewhere in Asia. North in the Arctic Sea is a sea that can wash away all the sins of mankind (ch. 1: "And when a man washes himself in it, he becomes clean of the cleanness thereof, and white of its whiteness—even if he were dark"), echoing here the Biblical, Moslem, Buddhist, Hindu, Norse and Finnish concepts of holyness due to geographical placement at utmost north of the planet. In first part of the book locales are hardly named at all, but India gets a special mention when God casts the ever-threatening devil away:
9 And a wind blew down from heaven by the command of God and carried away the [devil] serpent from Adam and Eve, and threw it on the seashore where it landed in India.
(Source: The Book of Adam and Eve, ch. 18)
This peculiar detail is noticeably similar to OL narrative on India, with key parts underlined:
The land between the Panj-ab (Indus) and the Ganges is just as flat as Fryasland by the sea, with varied landscapes of fields and woods, fertile in all parts. [...] Besides what the people suffer from their princes, they also suffer much from the poisonous and wild animals. [...] Besides many other wriggling things, there are snakes from the size of a worm all the way to the size of a tree. The largest can swallow a whole cow, but the smallest are even more dangerous. They hide between flowers and fruits in order to attack those who come to pick them. Whoever is bitten by them must die, because Earth will not give herbs against their poison as long as the people make themselves guilty of idolatry.
(Source: OL MS 165-166)
A key point here is the uncommon theological good-and-evil Indian theme, present in both accounts. There is no specific reason for it in the Christian version, but a point is made in OL version, suggesting that the idea was copied from there along with the 6,000 year chronology system.

Later in AD 900s Christian Egyptian Eutychius of Alexandria (more here) included the Adam and Eve stories in truncated, summarised form in his work The Annals of Eutychius. Here the original version has been corrupted to different version where: "Because they [Adam and Eve] disobeyed their Lord, [God] drove them from the garden, in the ninth hour of Friday, and exiled them to a mountain in India" (source). There is no mention of original sinful devil theme of snakes and now it's erroneously claimed that the Adam and Eve were instead sent to India. Thus knowledge of Eutychius version alone does not suffice here.

The AD 500s Adam and Eve work shares also another notable similarity to Northern European myths via Balder son of Odin (Norse sagas), Angantýr son of Höfundr (The Saga of Hervör and Heidrek) and Lemminkäinen (SKVR VII1 836, SKVR I2 758), also called Balder among Finland-Swedes (Bock family saga), Lammechinus in Latin (medieval Catholic sources). All of them share a tale of a young, handsome god or prince being killed hastily or in error with a blind person or shepherd mentioned. This is not present in standard Bible story on Lamech, but is noteworthily present in Adam and Eve story of Lamech version (link), suggesting that the name literally equates to 'Lemminkäinen'. For comparable situation between a Levantine and Nordic mythology, please see the above cases e.g. Wenamun-Väinämöinen. The similarities are:
  • Lamekh the blind ↔ Lemminkäinen and Balder killed by a blind (SKVR I2 758: 'closed-eyed') man or a blind god Höðr
  • son Atun ↔ Odin father of Balder, Lemminkäinen aka Balder of Odenma Aser people
  • Atun's wife Hazina ↔ Odin's wife as Asynja, female Asynjor of Lemminkäinen's Aser people
  • young shepherd ↔ Lemminkäinen killed by a shepherd (SKVR VII1 836)
  • death by arrow ↔ death by mistletoe arrow
  • shooting a dart as a game ↔ death of Balder as game gone wrong, death of Angantyr as magical mishap
  • supernaturally long ages for Lamech's lineage ↔ supernaturally long ages for Fornjót lineage (Lemminkäinen's lineage) and for Angantýr's lineage
  • Lamech is special in dying before his father (bk. 3 ch. 3) ↔ Balder or Lemminkäinen notable for dying as young person before their father
  • Genun son of Lamech instrumental in creating the sons of god Nephilim episode (bk. 2 ch. 20, bk. 3, ch 4) ↔ similar giants and wives episode in Angantýr's ancestor lineage (ch. 1).
The Eutychius version is as follows: "It happened that Lāmikh, the seventh descendant of Cain and a shepherd, shot a dart,
as a game, that struck his grandfather Cain killing him" (source).

This further suggest that the Adam and Eve similarities to OL are not a coincidental artifact, but part of a larger pattern where Northern European legends about Odin (Wodin), Frisians and such ended up in Levantine sources. As the full Lamech story is not present in standard Bible version available to medieval Europeans, but instead in version used by Africans and Arabs, it's unlikely that the story was copied by Norse and Finnish heathens in medieval Northern Europe.

Furthermore Balder and Lemminkäinen are central figures in their respective Nordic mythologies, with the likes of Bock family saga Aser system literally unable to function without a Balder-Lemminkäinen character present in it. This is unlike the Lamech version, who is just a run-of-the-mill holy man character in BIblical traditions and double so in standard Bible narrative that leaves out all the above details. This suggests the character came from north to south and likely predates Christian AD era due to the fact that associated Fornjót characters appear already in BC era Sumerian King List and Odenma core tale in 500s to 400s BC era Buddhist work Āṭānāṭiya Sutta (under the name Uttarakuru).

Textual correlation between OL and The Book of Adam and Eve was found in 2023. Image: Lamech by Lucas van Leyden (link).
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Re: Why Oera Linda book can't be a forgery

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Source 6 Rulers of Lagash

Source: original, English translation, academic work on the text here.

Relevant portions: lines 1-36, especially on flood, black peoples, plough, 100 years, irrigation canals, Lagas; line 187 on Tirac palace, line 192 name Ur-Ninmarki.

Corresponding OL MS portions: 048 mention of black people in Lydia, 049-050 on Aldland flood related upheaval, 058 on movement of non-Nordic and black people to formerly Frisian lands and vice-versa plus founding of Thir's burg; relevant in context are also the parts 053-056 echoing Ynglingasaga's tale of Gefjun, Denmark and Odin (see below).

Dating: earliest published translation in 1967 (122 years after OL MS).

Explanation: here the parallels are primarily between the beginning chapters of Ynglingasaga and Rulers of Lagash, but there are couple of similarities only shared between Rulers of Lagash and OL:

flood ↔ flood
mention of 100 years ↔ mention of 100 years
Tirac (ti-ra-aš) palace ↔ Thir's burg (i.e. Iku-Tiera's or Þorri's burg).

The similarities shared by Rulers of Lagash, Ynglingasaga (ch. 1, 5, 17-19) and occasionally also by OL are:

mention of black peoples ↔ mentions of black ("Bláland hit mikla", "blámenn"), repeated mentions of blacks
theme of working the earth, canals ↔ theme of working the earth, forming Danish isles
in Lagas ↔ in Laage
Ezina ↔ Gefjon
En-Mes-an-du the son ↔ Auðe the Rich or alternatively Öndur the son
Puzur-Ninli ↔ Visbur son of Vanlande (see Puzur-Burri in the SKL example for same linguistic loan)
Dadu ↔ Domald
Tuggur ↔ Domar
Ur-Ninmarki ↔ theme of Denmark (Danmarkar, see nin ↔ van above as van and dan sound similar).

The same portions of Ynglingasaga that deal with above are next to the parts with Odin and Gylfi (a Fornjót line character), which in turn have a strong parallel to the tale of Wodin and Magus in OL. Thus the textual relevancies are mostly limited to select chapters.

Textual correlation between OL, Ynglingasaga and Rulers of Lagash was found in 2020.
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Re: Why Oera Linda book can't be a forgery

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Source 2b Ur III Sumerian King List (USKL)

Source: original, transliteration and academic work on the text

Relevant portions: side 4 (iv) line 31 (Elulu), side 6 (vi) lines 26-27 (Utu-hegal's 7 year reign) and lines 32-34 on Ur-Namma to Sulgi lineage.

Corresponding OL MS portions: Wodin’s war tale (053-055), Wodin’s seven year reign (055), subsequent Finnish rulers including the prince tutored by Magus (056), mention of Týr or THÍR in Tunis story (058-059).

Dating: earliest published translation in 2003 (158 years after OL MS).

Explanation: a non-public, privately owned, rare version of Sumerian King List that was first academically studied in 2003. It contains a truncated variant version of the Sumerian King List (SKL), but is believed by academics to be older since the text ends in way that can be understood as to have been written in life of Sulgi the last ruler mentioned (SKL goes further in listed rulers).

Despite being the shortened version with not full set of OL and Norse saga matches (as with the full SKL version), the USKL version retains some of the relevant portions.
  • Ur-Utu’s war against ummanum ie. Gutians ↔ Wodin’s Finnish wars (please see ABC19 earlier for more on this)
  • Utu-hejal’s 7 year reign ↔ Wodin’s 7 year reign
  • Ur-Namma’s 20-18 year reign and son Culgi ↔ the child prince tutored to adulthood by Magus (i.e. Väinämöinen), 'Finns' as Cu/Cuc/sus/su.
The knowledge of Finnish rulers ends in unnamed half-Frisian, half-Finnish son of Wodin; likewise USKL ends in similar characters. The USKL is believed to have been edited multiple times, with the Ur III period (2112 BC to 2004 BC) and Culgi's time in office (2029–1982 BC) being a noteworthy match with OL Finns-to-Wodin episode timeframe being from 2194 BC to 2001 BC. Wodin's son would be adult at about 1993 BC (-2194+101+80+20), again matching Culgi's time in office.

That the text mentions Heiti (Elulu), of the Heiti and Beiti duo (Elulu and Balulu), suggests the whatever original version was used to produce the USKL included originally the full understanding of Fornjót lineage, just as the OL and SKL do.

Textual correlation between OL, Frá Fornjóti and USKL was found in 2023.
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Re: Why Oera Linda book can't be a forgery

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This post shows how the same lineage attested in OL and Norse sagas ended up not only in Sumerian sources (SKL, USKL, ABC19), but also to Christian Bible and Islamic Quran. This all is parallel to the Alexander the Great who is found also from likes of OL, Uruk King List ("A-lik-sa-an-dar", source) and Quran as 'Two-Horned One' seeking water of life and Atlantis (source, the Quran name is also Bock family saga term for water of wisdom ritual).

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Most of the traditions put these characters into about ~2000 BC era, again evidence that once in antiquity there existed a shared Eurasian standard chronology on what had happened. This is also incidentally the reason why some of these names and peoples (like the Gutians) are so enigmatic to Levantine scholars: they never were to begin with about Middle Eastern situations, people and places. Main arguments that the story went from north to south are the full 12+ sons of Kaleva (sons of Fornjót/Guðmundr) troupe in Finnish root source and how the Finnish system can't function without a Lemminkäinen character (Lamech/Lammechinus) whereas the character is of less importance in other traditions (even the Norse Balder dies).

As is evident from the comparison, some of the early Christian and Islamic editors must either had access to Finnish and Norse language sources or knew them directly. Correctly renaming Reu and Āzar, instead of using the earlier local spellings Enmerkar and Ennuntarahana, is evidence of exact Bock family saga term knowledge. An alternative explanation is that the Reu-Serug pair is due to Egyptian army commander Reʾu or Raia (Reu) fighting Sargon (Serug) in 720s BC (source), but this reading does not explain the presence of Frá Fornjóti loans (Nahor, Terah) or why Reu happens to coincide lineage wise exactly with Ra-Ilmarinen.

One interesting suggestion from this comparison is that the Gog and Magog of the Biblical traditions are the "Gutians" or the Górr and Nórr armies of Frá Fornjóti and Oera Linda book. One takes the sea route and another takes the land (maa) route, hence Gog and Magog (maa-Gog, 'land-Gog'). This division is present also in the OL narrative (OL MS 051: "divided into two large groups and each went its own way. Of the one part, no account has come to us. But the other part invaded the rear of our Skeanland").

The theological (divine) retribution element is already present in the ABC19 Weidner Chronicle version, hence the same element of God using Gog, Magog and perhaps also Rosh (Russia) to punish various nations. If Magog is the 'land of Gog', then it's again a perfect match: maa-Gog 'land-Gog' in reference to the Gothic/Gutian nations, or "Gotlandi, Kænlandi ok Finnlandi" as Frá Fornjóti puts it ('Gotland/Gothland, Kainuu and Finland' in English). Wikipedia has two good articles (one, two) about the whole topic. Note that in the Hindu account the two generals Koka and Vikoka battle Kalki. It just happens that in Fundinn Noregr, variant of Frá Fornjóti, the Nórr and Górr oppose one king Sokni of Sogn (source) - that Germanic name form is in Finnish form Soini (son of Kaleva-Iku-Turilas-Fornjót-Guðmundr), whose alternative name is Kalkki (source). In Norse saga version of the battle, the Finnish generals as the Gogian-Magogians side win and the Sokni-Soini-Kalkki-Kalki side loses. In Danish Gesta Danorum's heavily textually corrupt retelling of the same core story a somewhat similar confusion, as to on whose side each participant is on, is apparent when Finnish king Olimarus' (king Ilmarinen, king Kári) two unnamed champion battle win one Thor in Scandinavia, when in the original Norse saga version the two champions are sons of king Þorri, descendant of Ilmarinen-Kári. Early concepts of Koka, Vikoka, Kalki, Kalkki-Soinis lineage as peculiar horse riders (example one, example two ch. 4-5, example three), plus all the lore on two attacking Gutian armies as godly punishment (ABC19 Weidner Chronicle), seems to be the textual root of the Biblical end times horsemen vision (more here).

Interestingly the Biblical Gog and Magog part seems to be out of place in Genesis 10-11. They ought to be right after the Terah, but here the original continuum breaks and another story has been glued on top of it. That another tale is the story of Krishna-to-Brahmins that survived fully in Finland (Bock family saga), first half survived in Iceland (Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar, ch. 1 starts Finno-Norse Frá Fornjóti lineage kings, Krishna and Narakasura episode in ch. 3, Kol-Krishna's connection to Finland made in ch. 6 where Bálagarðssíðu = Odenma), latter half survived in Egypt (Manetho and Chaeremon quoted in Against Apion), in Greek accounts of Jewish connections to India (Aristotle, Clearchus, Megasthenes), the Greek-Byzantine tale of Moso the female teacher of Jews (Suda) and in very textually corrupt, confused account in Bible and Quran with Brahmins and Brahma-Saraswati pair made to be the Abraham-Sarah pair. The adventure narrative in the original root version went geographically from Fennoscandia to India and from India to Middle East. The OT editors took the story, discarded the first half (no theological space for a Hindu messiah figure), kept the second half and copy-pasted it on top of an another king list. Since this mixing removed the Gutians or Nórr and Górr armies, they were mentioned elsewhere as Gog and Magog. But now they were textually out of place, breaking the original thematic connection.

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