Some portions of OL that echo the astronomical elements:
Ott has cleverly noted that the T.Angfang may connect to Roman account of "Tamfana" temples of Germanic peoples, implying they had time keeping and cosmonology related houses where all things astronomical in nature could have been discussed. The Frisian word for time, Kroder, may relate to Greek Cronus (of which words like chronology, chronicle) which is the Roman Saturn.[cosmonology, MS 006]
Wralda, who alone is whole and eternal [GOD ÀND ÉVG], created the potential [T.ANFANG]. Then came time, and time wrought all things; even the very Earth herself.
[on Kroder or time, MS 035]
KRODER. THÀT IS TID
the Carrier — that is time
[before the 4.2 kiloyear event, MS 047]
Before the bad times came, our land was the most beautiful in Wralda ['world']. Sun rose higher, and there was seldom frost.
On the trees and shrubs grew fruits and nuts, which are now lost. [...] Years were not counted, for one was as happy as
[the 4.2 kiloyear event at 2194 BC, MS 049]
During the whole summer, Sun had hidden behind clouds, as if she did not want to see Earth. Wind rested in his bags, causing smoke and steam to stand like pillars over houses and pools. [...] In the midst of this stillness, Earth began to tremble
as if she was dying.
Most people know that Jove aka Jupiter (Zeus Pater) was the Roman main sky god of lightning and thunder, but they were also seriously interested in the Saturnus cult e.g. their central state treasure doubled as the temple of Saturn (source). It's an open question if the archetype of Saturnus eating children is the model for later European child abuse or ritual murder cults, though from heathen viewpoint it could have been originally about an astronomical parable e.g. EU theory, a fertility cult e.g. semen drinking as 'eating children' or a case of murders withing the ruling family (the Phoenician viewpoint, please see below).
The Phoenicians of OL have their founding mythology to survive in Sanchuniathon's text (source) and there the sun is the main deity though Cronus gets also a curious mention along with Atlas of Atlantis fame:
The Finns of OL have their mythology to survive in Bock family saga (link, main source), where sun (Oden) and moon (Ra) worship is everything and forms the celestial model for governing king and queen system on earth. A female bureocracy is depicted that keeps a record of star systems and living humans so that every living Finn at any given time has a visible name star in the night sky, just next to that person's relatives' name stars. Stars are considered to be of metal and reflect the sun light, echoing the Hindu and Buddhist viewpoint. Saturn does not make any appearance, but Venus must have been elemental as a Norse saga episode, attested also from OL (MS 051), depicts a Finnish princess Gói from Finnish aamunkoi, kointähti 'Venus-star' (she is not present in OL version). I recall Talbot writing some commentary on the Bock saga back in the 1990s, but I can't find the article anymore online or offline (sorry).[...] they stretched forth their hands to heaven towards the Sun; for him they supposed to be God, the only lord of heaven, calling him Beelsamin, which in the Phœnician dialect signifies Lord of Heaven, but among the Greeks is equivalent to Zeus.
[...] Afterwards Cronus having coneived a suspicion of his own brother Atlas, by the advice of Hermes, threw him into a deep cavern in the earth, and buried him [sinking of Atlantis or Atland]. At this time the descendants of the Dioscuri, having built some light and other more complete ships, put to sea; and being cast away over against Mount Cassius, there consecrated a temple.
But the auxiliaries of Ilus, who is Cronus, were called Eloeim [Biblical Elohim 'gods'], as it were, the allies of Cronus; being so called after Cronus. And Cronus, having a son called Sadidus, dispatched him with his own sword, because he held him in suspicion, and with his own hand deprived his child of life. And in like manner he cut off the head of his own daughter, so that all the gods were astonished at the disposition of Cronus.
The Norse peoples also paid attention to celestial phenomena and their main deity Odin's war stories are the exact same as the war stories of Sumerian Utu kings, named after the sun god Utu (see Oden above; Oden is variant spelling of Odin as is the Frisian Wodin). More about that here. As noted by others, the Norse saga authors must have known that in the split-second instant of a lightning hitting the ground there is a secondary lightning from ground up to sky. This was encoded in the story of thunder god Thor's returning hammer. How the Norsemen could have known this without the access to special slow-motion cameras is an ongoing mystery, as human eye is too slow to notice that.